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Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which are data structuresthat contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A distinguishing feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this"). In object-oriented programming, computer programs are designed by making them out of objects that interact with one another. There is significant diversity in object-oriented programming, but most popular languages are class-based,meaning that objects are instances of classes, which typically also determines their type.
Many of the most widely used programming languages are multi-paradigm programming languages that support object-oriented programming to a greater or lesser degree, typically in combination with imperative, procedural programming. Significant object-oriented languages include C++, Objective-C, Smalltalk, Delphi, Java, C#, Perl, Python, Ruby and PHP.

Object-oriented programming attempts to provide a model for programming based on objects. Object-oriented programming integrates code and data using the concept of an "object". An object is an abstract data type with the addition of polymorphism and inheritance. An object has both state (data) and behavior (code).

Object orientation uses encapsulation and information hiding. Object-orientation essentially merges abstract data types with structured programming and divides systems into modular objects which own their own data and are responsible for their own behavior. This feature is known as encapsulation. With encapsulation, the data for two objects are divided so that changes to one object cannot affect the other. Note that all this relies on the various languages being used appropriately, which, of course, is never certain. Object-orientation is not a software silver bullet.

The object-oriented approach encourages the programmer to place data where it is not directly accessible by the rest of the system. Instead, the data is accessed by calling specially written functions, called methods, which are bundled with the data. These act as the intermediaries for retrieving or modifying the data they control. The programming construct that combines data with a set of methods for accessing and managing that data is called an object. The practice of using subroutines to examine or modify certain kinds of data was also used in non-OOP modular programming, well before the widespread use of object-oriented programming.

Defining software as modular components that support inheritance is meant to make it easy both to re-use existing components and to extend components as needed by defining new subclasses with specialized behaviors. This goal of being easy to both maintain and reuse is known in the object-oriented paradigm as the "open/closed principle. " A module is open if it supports extension (e.g. can easily modify behavior, add new properties, provide default values, etc.). A module is closed if it has a well defined stable interface that all other modules must use and that limits the interaction and potential errors that can be introduced into one module by changes in another.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object-oriented_programming



Apache Tomcat is an open source web server and servlet container developed by the Apache Software Foundation (ASF). Tomcat implements several Java EE specifications including Java Servlet, JavaServer Pages (JSP), Java EL, and WebSocket, and provides a "pure Java" HTTP web server environment for Java code to run in.

Apache is developed and maintained by an open community of developers under the auspices of the Apache Software Foundation, released under the Apache License 2.0 license, and is open-source software.

Features

Tomcat 7.x implements the Servlet 3.0 and JSP 2.2 specifications. It requires Java version 1.6, although previous versions have run on Java 1.1 through 1.5. Versions 5 through 6 saw improvements in garbage collection, JSP parsing, performance and scalability. Native wrappers, known as "Tomcat Native", are available for Microsoft Windows and Unix for platform integration.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apache_Tomcat



JavaServer Pages (JSP) is a technology that helps software developers create dynamically generated web pages based on HTML, XML, or other document types. Released in 1999 by Sun Microsystems, JSP is similar to PHP, but it uses the Java programming language.

To deploy and run JavaServer Pages, a compatible web server with a servlet container, such as Apache Tomcat or Jetty, is required.

Architecturally, JSP may be viewed as a high-level abstraction of Java servlets. JSPs are translated into servlets at runtime; each JSP servlet is cached and re-used until the original JSP is modified.

JSP can be used independently or as the view component of a server-side model?view?controller design, normally with JavaBeans as the model and Java servlets (or a framework such as Apache Struts) as the controller. This is a type of Model 2 architecture.

JSP allows Java code and certain pre-defined actions to be interleaved with static web markup content, with the resulting page being compiled and executed on the server to deliver a document. The compiled pages, as well as any dependent Java libraries, use Java bytecode rather than a native software format. Like any other Java program, they must be executed within a Java virtual machine (JVM) that integrates with the server's host operating system to provide an abstract platform-neutral environment.

JSPs are usually used to deliver HTML and XML documents, but through the use of OutputStream, they can deliver other types of data as well. The Web container creates JSP implicit objects like pageContext, servletContext, session, request & response.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JavaServer_Pages



The Spring Framework is an open source application framework and inversion of control container for the Java platform. The framework's core features can be used by any Java application, but there are extensions for building web applications on top of the Java EE platform. Although the framework does not impose any specific programming model, it has become popular in the Java community as an alternative to, replacement for, or even addition to the Enterprise JavaBean (EJB) model.

Spring is an open source framework created to address the complexity of enterprise application development. one of important advantage of spring framework is its layred architecture, which allows you select component you want while others are ignored. The spring framework is both comprehensive and modular. It is an ideal framework for test driven development.Spring?s main aim is to make J2EE easier to use and promote good programming practice. It does this by enabling a POJO-based programming model that is applicable in a wide range of environments.

Spring MVC

The Spring web MVC framework provides model-view-controller architecture and ready components that can be used to develop flexible and loosely coupled web applications. The MVC pattern results in separating the different aspects of the application (input logic, business logic, and UI logic), while providing a loose coupling between these elements.

http://javawiki.wordpress.com/2009/08/26/what-is-spring-framework
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JavaServer_Pages



MySQL officially the world's second most widely used open-source relationa database management system (RDBMS). It is named after co-founder Michael Widenius's daughter, My. The SQL phrase stands for Structured Query Language.

The MySQL development project has made its source code available under the terms of the GNU General Public License, as well as under a variety of proprietary agreements. MySQL was owned and sponsored by a single for-profit firm, the Swedish company MySQL AB, now owned by Oracle Corporation.

MySQL is a popular choice of database for use in web applications, and is a central component of the widely used open source web application software stack (and other 'AMP' stacks). LAMP is an acronym for "Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python." Free-software-open source projects that require a full-featured database management system often use MySQL.

For proprietary use, several paid editions are available, and offer additional functionality. Applications which use MySQL databases include: TYPO3, MODx, Joomla, WordPress, phpBB, MyBB, Drupal and other software. MySQL is also used in many high-profile, large-scale websites, including Google (though not for searches), Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, and YouTube.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MySQL



A comma-separated values (CSV) (also sometimes called character-separated values, because the separator character does not have to be a comma) file stores tabular data (numbers and text) in plain-text form. Plain text means that the file is a sequence of characters, with no data that has to be interpreted as binary numbers. A CSV file consists of any number of records, separated by line breaks of some kind; each record consists of fields, separated by some other character or string, most commonly a literal comma or tab. Usually, all records have an identical sequence of fields.

A general standard for the CSV file format does not exist, but RFC 4180 provides a de facto standard for some aspects of it.

CSV formats are best used to represent sets or sequences of records in which each record has an identical list of fields. This corresponds to a single relation in a relational database, or to data (though not calculations) in a typical spreadsheet.

CSV formats are not limited to a particular character set. They work just as well with Unicode as with ASCII (although particular programs that support CSV may have their own limitations). CSV files normally will even survive naive translation from one character set to another (unlike nearly all proprietary data formats). CSV does not, however, provide any way to indicate what character set is in use, so that must be communicated separately, or determined at the receiving end (if possible).

Databases that include multiple relations cannot be exported as a single CSV file[citation needed].

Similarly, CSV cannot naturally represent hierarchical or object-oriented databases or other data. This is because every CSV record is expected to have the same structure. CSV is therefore rarely appropriate for documents such as those created with HTML, XML, or other markup or word-processing technologies.

Statistical databases in various fields often have a generally relation-like structure, but with some repeatable groups of fields. For example, health databases such as the Demographic and Health Survey typically repeat some questions for each child of a given parent (perhaps up to a fixed maximum number of children). Statistical analysis systems often include utilities that can "rotate" such data; for example, a "parent" record that includes information about five children can be split into five separate records, each containing (a) the information on one child, and (b) a copy of all the non-child-specific information. CSV can represent either the "vertical" or "horizontal" form of such data.

In a relational database, similar issues are readily handled by creating a separate relation for each such group, and connecting "child" records to the related "parent" records using a foreign key (such as an ID number or name for the parent). In markup languages such as XML, such groups are typically enclosed within a parent element and repeated as necessary (for example, multiple nodes within a single node). With CSV there is no widely accepted single-file solution.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comma-separated_values



Introduction:

A Java servlet is a Java programming language program that extends the capabilities of a server. Although servlets can respond to any types of requests, they most commonly implement applications hosted on Web servers. Such Web servlets are the Java counterpart to other dynamic Web content technologies such as PHP and ASP.NET.

Servlets are most often used to:

A Servlet is an object that receives a request and generates a response based on that request. The basic Servlet package defines Java objects to represent servlet requests and responses, as well as objects to reflect the servlet's configuration parameters and execution environment. The package javax.servlet.http defines HTTP-specific subclasses of the generic servlet elements, including session management objects that track multiple requests and responses between the web server and a client. Servlets may be packaged in a WAR file as a web application.

Life cycle of a servlet:

Three methods are central to the life cycle of a servlet.
  1. init();
  2. Service();
  3. destroy();


They are implemented by every servlet and are invoked at specific times by the server:



The following is a typical user scenario of these methods:

  1. Assume that a user requests to visit a URL.
    • The browser then generates an HTTP request for this URL.
    • This request is then sent to the appropriate server.

  2. The HTTP request is received by the web server and forwarded to the servlet container.
    • The container maps this request to a particular servlet.
    • The servlet is dynamically retrieved and loaded into the address space of the container.

  3. The container invokes the init() method of the servlet.
    • This method is invoked only when the servlet is first loaded into memory.
    • It is possible to pass initialization parameters to the servlet so that it may configure itself.

  4. The container invokes the service() method of the servlet.
    • This method is called to process the HTTP request.
    • The servlet may read data that has been provided in the HTTP request.
    • The servlet may also formulate an HTTP response for the client.

  5. The servlet remains in the container's address space and is available to process any other HTTP requests received from clients.
    • The service() method is called for each HTTP request.

  6. The container may, at some point, decide to unload the servlet from its memory.
    • The algorithms by which this decision is made are specific to each container.

  7. The container calls the servlet's destroy() method to relinquish any resources such as file handles that are allocated for the servlet; important data may be saved to a persistent store.

  8. The memory allocated for the servlet and its objects can then be garbage collected.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_servlet



Introduction:

Hibernate ORM (Hibernate in short) is an object-relational mapping library for the Java language, providing a framework for mapping an object-oriented domain model to a traditional relational database. Hibernate solves object-relational impedance mismatch problems by replacing direct persistence-related database accesses with high-level object handling functions. Hibernate is a free software that is distributed under the GNU Lesser General Public License.

Hibernate's primary feature is mapping from Java classes to database tables (and from Java data types to SQL data types). Hibernate also provides data query and retrieval facilities. It generates SQL calls and relieves the developer from manual result set handling and object conversion. Applications using Hibernate are portable to supported SQL databases with little performance overhead.

Mapping:

Mapping Java classes to database tables is accomplished through the configuration of an XML file or by using Java Annotations. When using an XML file, Hibernate can generate skeleton source code for the persistence classes. This is unnecessary when annotations are used. Hibernate can use the XML file or the annotations to maintain the database schema.

Facilities to arrange one-to-many and many-to-many relationships between classes are provided. In addition to managing associations between objects, Hibernate can also manage reflexive associations where an object has a one-to-many relationship with other instances of its own type.

Hibernate supports the mapping of custom value types. This makes the following scenarios possible:



Hibernate Query Language (HQL):


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hibernate_%28Java%29

Supported Databases:

Hibernate supports almost all the major RDBMS. Following is list of few of the database engines supported by Hibernate.

http://www.tutorialspoint.com/hibernate/hibernate_quick_guide.htm



C Language :

C is often used for "system programming", including implementing operating systems and embedded system applications, due to a combination of desirable characteristics such as code portability and efficiency, ability to access specific hardware addresses.

C ++ :

C++ is one of the most popular programming languages and is implemented on a wide variety of hardware and operating system platforms. As an efficient compiler to native code, its application domains include systems s/w,application s/w,device drivers, embedded software, high-performance server.

OpenMP :

OpenMP (Open Multiprocessing) uses a portable,scalable model that gives programmers a simple and flexible interface for developing for platforms parallel applicationsranging from the standard desktop computer to the supercomputer.

MPI :

MPI believes that meeting and event planners serve a critical role in the success of business, and is committed to giving its members the very best in professional development, business opportunities and a vibrant industry community.

NS-3 :

The ns-3 project is to create an open simulation environment for networking research that will be preferred inside the research community.

Struts :

Struts provides its own Controller component and integrates with other technologies to provide the Model and the View.

Hibernate :

Hibernate's primary feature is mapping from Java classes to database tables also provides data query and retrieval facilities.

JAI :

Java Advanced Imaging (JAI) is a Java platform extension API that provides a set of object-oriented interfaces that support a simple, high-level programming model which allows developers to create their own image manipulation associated with commercial image processing software.

Cloud computing :

Cloud computing is the use of computing resources (hardware and software) that are delivered as a service over a network (typically the Internet). For example, email. The name comes from the common use of a cloud-shaped symbol as an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it contains in system diagrams. Cloud computing entrusts remote services with a user's data, software and computation.

Android :

Android provides an adaptive app framework that allows you to provide unique resources for different device configurations. For example, you can create different XML layout files for different screen sizes and the system determines which layout to apply based on the current device's screen size.

Spring Framework :

The Spring Framework provides a comprehensive programming and configuration model for modern Java-based enterprise applications - on any kind of deployment platform. A key element of Spring is infrastructural support at the application level:Spring focuses on the "plumbing" of enterprise applications so that teams can focus on application-level business logic, without unnecessary ties to specific deployment environments.

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